Higher Polytechnic School
|Higher Polytechnic School|
The grand opening of the academic year was in the new building where rector inauguration took place on November 15, 1877: after the service in the church of St. Mary Magdalene and the consecration of the main and chemical buildings, the ceremony was held in the auditorium. Rector Yulian Zakhariyevych took a solemn lecture «Art in the service of technology».
Hall of the main building was connected through two copper wires with amfi theatral audience of the Chemistry building. In the assembly hall was lecturing Associate Professor R. Hostkovskyy and in the Chemistry building - Associate Professor B.-A. Abakanowicz. The demonstration took place successfully. Many participants became convinced that talking at a distance is possible.
To facilitate research and dissemination of the results obtained in 1877 it was created the Polytechnic Society, which was publishing its own journal.
Especially for the Polytechnic a famous Polish painter Jan Matejko was commissioned to make eleven paintings that would reflect the technological progress of mankind. The artist made them as small composite sketches. In actual size pictures were painted by students of the artist: Y. Unyezhynskyy, T. Lisevych, L.Luskin Stazhenskyy and C. Luskin Stazhenskyy. The creative idea was - the cycle of paintings «The history of human civilization» allegorically reflect the path of human genius, thought, science as the basis of spiritual and technological progress, as a manifestation of human nature and results of operations of biblical principles to the end of the XIX century. These works still adorn the hall of the main building. For them Matejko received the honorary title of Doctor Honoris Causa of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow.
At the Department of Technical Chemistry opened a course of hutnytstvo (1885), the machine-building — training courses for mining professionals (1885). The Department of agriculture and forestry profession was established in 1888, Department of zoology, botany and commodity research, which was headed by prominent researcher of the flora of the Carpathians, Ukrainian Ostap Voloschak (1835-1918), in 1884. Specifically for the Roman Hostkovskoho (1837-1912) was created the Department of rail transport theory in 1890. He was the first who had this course in Austria (Professor was chairman of Polytechnic Society (1877-1884)). The department of electrical engineering was opened at the beginning of 1891. Since 1886 a research station on the problems of the oil industry and ceramics started functioning and later it did a station of mechanical testing of materials in engineering structures.
The mandatory exam rules were approved in 1878. At the end of each year the exhibitions of the best students’ works were launched. Studies were conducted in the departments of engineering, architecture, engineering and technical chemistry for free.
After two years of studying, students had general examinations in each course and after processing the entire curriculum — graduation exam, under which the graduate received the title of engineer with faculty indication (electrical engineer, chemist, etc).
The academic year has two semesters: winter — from 21 September till 31 January and the summer — from 11 February till 20 June.
At that time the four departments were training more than 250 students, half of them — at the Department of Engineering. The teaching staff consisted of 57 people.
There were 20 departments in the Polytechnic school: I Department of Mathematics and; II Department of Mathematics; Department of descriptive geometry; Department of mechanics and machines theory; Department of Geodesy and spherical astronomy; Department of physics; Department of general and analytical chemistry; Department of mineralogy and geology; Department of Architecture; II Department of Architecture; Department of Engineering (construction of roads, railways and tunnels); II Department of Engineering (water construction and engineering encyclopedia); III Department of Engineering (Theory and static construction, bridges); Theories of rail traffic; engineering; Department of Mechanical Engineering and Technology; Department of chemical engineering; Department of drawing and modeling; Department of botany, zoology and commodity; Department of Electrical Engineering. In addition to this as part of the Polytechnic school there were 19 specialized museums, 4 laboratories, 2 research stations and a library with 14 thousand of volumes.
From the second half of the nineteenth century the Polytechnic school becomes an integral part of European technical science. Research in mechanics and theory of mechanisms was closely related to physics and mathematics. It was centered at the Polytechnic school, where Yan Francke - author of a textbook on analytical mechanics headed the Department of Mechanics (1871). Since 1908 - a talented mechanic theoretical Maximilian Huber (1872-1950). He created the foundations of theoretical and practical mechanics, formulated conditions for plasticity of materials («Huber hypothesis»), teached many students who developed research in the theory of elasticity and deformation of solids. The young physicist Tadeusz Godlevskiy (1878-1921) was the initiator of the first laboratory for studies of emitting materials in Polytechnic school. At the Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, created in 1782, he cooperated with the prominent nuclear physicist E. Rutherford.
The right to award the scientific degree of Doctor of Science was issued to the Polytehnic school in 1901. By 1918 there were 64 Doctors of engineering. In 1912 for services to science Maria Sklodowska-Curie was given the honorary title of Doctor Honoris Causa, Professor J. Franke, J. Medvedsky, A. Witkowski and engineer K. Obrembovychu (establisher of the Warsaw University of Technology).
In the early twentieth century Lviv becomes a significant and influential center of European science.
Presentation edition of National University «Lviv Polytechnic». Elite State «(LLC» Publishing House «Logos Ukraine», 2008). ISBN 978-966-1581-02-8
Museum of the Lviv Polytechnic. Outline and Guide. / For editorial Anna Kos. — Lviv: Publishing House of the National University "Lviv Polytechnic" 2005.